This paper focuses on gender inequality in the agricultural sciences in colleges of agriculture at U.S. land-grant universities. We ask two questions: (1) What degree of gender inequality exists in the agricultural sciences? (2) Can gender inequality be attributed to differences in human capital, professional networking, means of scientific production, and/or research productivity? Drawing on data from a 2005 nationwide survey of land-grant agricultural scientists, we find evidence of significant gender inequality despite few gender differences in scientists' human capital, professional networking, means of scientific production, and research productivity. Our most robust finding relates to gender differences in scientists' linkages with private industry. We conclude with thoughts on other possible explanations for gender inequality within the land-grant agricultural sciences professoriate.